Vegetarian diet and periodontal status: assessment of clinical measures and gingival fluid inflammatory cytokines

Authors: Ahmed Khocht, Michael Orlich, Denise Bellinger, Leticia Lenoir, Crissy Irani, Gary Fraser


Aim: Vegetarian diets are known to reduce inflammation. We investigated the cross-sectional association of gingival fluid inflammatory cytokines with periodontal status in vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Methods: A total of 54 systemically healthy subjects were enrolled. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. A comprehensive periodontal examination was performed. Gingival fluid was collected, samples were assessed for interleukin 1β(IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). Results: Twenty-eight subjects were categorized as vegetarian and 26 non-vegetarians. Multivariate analyses adjusting for plaque (PI) and demographics showed that bleeding on probing (BOP) and pocket depth (PD) were the only two clinical measures associated with diet. Diet modified the association between PI and BOP (p<0.01), vegetarians showed lesser BOP levels than non-vegetarians. Independent of diet, BOP positively associated with IL-1β (P<0.05) and TNF-α (p<0.01). Diet also modified the association between PI and PD (p<0.05), vegetarians showed shallower PD than non-vegetarians. Vegetarians showed comparable IL-10 levels in both shallow and deep pockets. By contrast, non-vegetarians showed decreased IL-10 levels in deep pockets (p<0.01). IL-6 and IL-8 showed no associations with diet. Conclusions: Vegetarian diet may mitigate the gingival inflammatory response to microbial plaque and enhance the gingival anti-inflammatory activity.

Download Article

Other articles in this issue

Machine learning identification of periodontitis patients and their subgingival microbial features Natalia Sánchez-Lopera, Manuela Restrepo-Posada, Sthefania Gutiérrez-González, David Ortega-Valderrama, Sandra Amaya-Sánchez, Adolfo Contreras, Andrés Felipe Gutiérrez, Leonardo A. Pachon, Javier Enrique Botero Download
Epidemiology of periodontitis in Brazilian adults: an integrative literature review of large and representative studies Tayse Caroline Cunha de Medeiros, Alessandra Areas e Souza, Alex Nogueira Haas, João Paulo Steffens Download
Effect of age on expression of osteoclastogenic bone biomarkers in periodontal surgical treatment outcomes Priyanka Gupta, Rameshwari Singhal, Pavitra Rastogi, Nand Lal, Anjani Kumar Pathak, Shivani Pandey, Abbas Ali Mahdi Download
Correlation of periodontal ligament associated protein-1 and tumour necrosis factor – alpha levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in periodontal health and diseased subjects before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy Ankitha Menon, Athira Jayan, AR Pradeep Download
Factors affecting demand for dental implant treatment: a patient-centered observational study Nil Yakar, Onurcem Duruel, Güliz N. Güncü, Erdem Karabulut, Nermin Yamalik Download
Antibiotics plus probiotic as an adjunct to the treatment of periodontitis in smokers: a short-term study Leticia H. Theodoro, João M. Mello-Neto, Marina M. Cláudio, Marta A. A. Nuernberg, Daniela M. J. Miessi, Beatriz G. Silva, João Victor S. Rodrigues, Daniela A. Brandini, Valdir G. Garcia Download
Subgingival irrigation with phytotherapics adjunct to scaling and root planing on the treatment of experimental periodontal disease in rats Carolina dos Santos Santinoni, Marcela Lucio Caldeira, Taciane Menezes da Silveira, Bibiana Dalsasso Velasques, Natália Marcumini Pola, Christine Men Martins, Douglas Roberto Monteiro, Luciana Prado Maia, Edilson Ervolino, Thiago Marchi Martins Download
Vegetarian diet and periodontal status: assessment of clinical measures and gingival fluid inflammatory cytokines Ahmed Khocht, Michael Orlich, Denise Bellinger, Leticia Lenoir, Crissy Irani, Gary Fraser Download
Platelet-rich fibrin as palatal bandage in gingival graft harvest: a systematic review and meta-analysis Agnes Andrade Martins, Jaiane Carmélia Monteiro Viana, Rayrane Iris Melo da Cunha, Luanny de Brito Avelino, Maria Helena Rodrigues Galvão, Cristiano Miranda de Araújo, Karinna Veríssimo Meira Taveira, Gustavo Henrique Apolinário Vieira Download