Background: Skin-related disorders and periodontitis are distinct diseases that have been associated with altered levels of testosterone. Understanding the mechanisms through which testosterone mediates gingival enlargement in animals and humans is crucial for preventing or treating this condition. In this study, we investigated the impact of different doses of androgens, the role of aromatase inhibition, and the effects of testosterone association with sex hormone receptor antagonists or aromatase inhibitors on human gingival fibroblast proliferation and migration in vitro. Methods: Fibroblasts were cultivated in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium in a humidified atmosphere and treated with different doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone, and testosterone in association with: aromatase inhibitor - anastrozole; antagonist of androgen receptors - flutamide; and antagonist of estrogen receptors - fulvestrant. Results: Low (1nM) and high (1μM) doses of testosterone significantly increased cells migration, but the higher dose did not alter cell proliferation. Those effects were related to both androgen and estrogen receptors activation, as evidenced by the dihydrotestosterone and drug interaction groups. Conclusions: Testosterone association with sex hormone receptor antagonists flutamide and fulvestrant suggests that not only androgen receptors, but also estrogen receptors, may take part in fibroblast cell proliferation and migration in vitro.
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