Objective: To assess levels of the biomarkers Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and alpha 2-macroglobulin (2MG) in saliva and serum in healthy individuals and patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) before and after periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: The 90 recruited subjects were divided into the three following groups: Group 1, with 30 healthy subjects; Group 2, with 30 systemically healthy subjects with stage II and III periodontitis; and Group 3, with 30 patients with periodontitis and well controlled T2DM (PDM). Salivary and serum PAI-1 and α2MG levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and correlated with clinical parameters before and three months after periodontal therapy, and the data obtained was statistically analyzed. Results: There was an improvement in clinical parameters in both groups that underwent initial periodontal therapy. Salivary and serum PAI-1 and α2MG levels were upregulated in PDM group, compared to periodontitis alone at baseline. A significant reduction in the levels of the biomarkers was observed three months after periodontal therapy, and an improvement in glycaemic control was also seen PDM group. Conclusion: PAI-1 was expressed in saliva and serum in healthy patients, and increased in periodontitis and diabetes patients, thus evidencing its possible role in periodontal inflammation and glucose regulation, and its levels decreased after periodontal therapy.
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