Periodontal status in cannabis smokers. A systematic review

Authors: Magdalena Mayol, Ernesto Andrade, Sebastián Perez Rivoir, Luis Alexandro Bueno Rossy and Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing


Aim: To assess the periodontal status in cannabis smokers in comparison with noncannabis smokers Methods: Electronic databases were searched as well as hand searches performed. Eligible studies followed the Population Exposure Comparison Outcome Study (PECOS) structure: P: dentate humans, E: cannabis smoking, C: non-cannabis smoking, O: Primary outcomes: periodontitis case definition, clinical attachment loss, probing depth; Secondary outcomes: bleeding on probing/ gingival inflammation, plaque index and calculus; S: observational studies. Qualitative analyses of the studies was done. Quality of cohort studies was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and cross-sectional studies were assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: 2661 records were screened, of which 14 articles were included. Data from a cohort study showed that highly exposed participants were at higher risk of clinical attachment loss progression. Six cross-sectional studies reported worse gingival or periodontal conditions in cannabis smokers. Nevertheless, one did not find such association, neither did three case series. Three studies were of high, two of moderate and six were of low quality. Conclusion: Based on the available data, frequent cannabis smoking could be detrimental for periodontal tissues and this could be dose-dependent. Studies including long-term cannabis smokers, and stratified for Periodontal Diseases’ etiologic factors and risk factors/ indicators are needed.

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