Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between depressive disorders and periodontal condition and the recurrence of periodontitis, during periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT). Methods: From a 6-year prospective cohort study with 268 individuals under PMT, 124 individuals had complete periodontal clinical data recorded between T1 (baseline) and T2 (final data at the last PMT appointment). Individuals were divided into two groups, being 35 individuals with depressive disorders (DD) and 89 individuals without DD (NDD). Full-mouth periodontal examination was evaluated at T1 and T2. Results: The periodontal status of NDD was significantly better then DD at T2. In the NDD group, the recurrence of periodontitis was 50.6% whereas in the DD group was 62.8%. Moreover, the following variables were significantly associated with recurrence of periodontitis in final multivariate logistic regression model: DD, age, co-habitation status without companion, smoking and the interaction between DD and smoking. Conclusion: Individuals with DD undergoing PMT presented higher rates of recurrence of periodontitis and tooth loss when compared to individuals without DD. Additionally, the interaction between DD and smoking significantly increased the risk for the recurrence of periodontitis. Keywords: Antidepressants; depressive disorders; epidemiology; maintenance; periodontitis.
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