Background: The aim of this study was to assess ligature-induced periodontitis, streptozotocin-induced diabetes and their combination on serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP- 1), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Materials and Methods: Forty-seven Wistar rats were studied: experimental periodontitis (13), experimental diabetes (10), experimental diabetes and experimental periodontitis (12) and health (12, controls). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection on day 1. Periodontitis was induced by ligation on day 16. Serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, IL-18, MCP-1, RANTES and sICAM-1 were assessed on days 16 (baseline) and 77 (final) by multiplex immunoassay. Results: Periodontitis significantly increased adiponectin and reduced IL-18. Diabetes significantly reduced leptin. The combination of diabetres and periodontitis: (a) significantly reduced leptin and IL-18 and significantly increased IL-6 than control, (b) showed stronger significance in leptin reduction than diabetes (c) reduced adiponectin and leptin than periodontitis. Conclusions: Periodontitis induced changes indicative of systemic inflammation. The combination of T1 diabetes and periodontitis induced systemic inflammation and serum changes of biomarkers involved in the esthablishment and progression of T1 diabetes. Their combination might affect the systemic inflammation generated by T1 diabetes.
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