Background: Few prospective studies have reported results of periodontal status and tooth loss in public/academic periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) programs. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the periodontal retreatment needs and progression of periodontitis, as well as tooth loss, in individuals under PMT in a public/academic environment. Materials and methods: From a PMT program at a public university, 39 individuals determined to be regular compliers (RC) and 52 irregular compliers (IC) were monitored over the course of 78 months [mean interval between visits of 6.2 ± 0.6 and 13.1 ± 1.9 months, respectively]. Complete periodontal examinations were conducted to evaluate probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) at baseline and final examinations. Biological, demographic, and behavioral predictive risk variables were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed when appropriate. Results: At final examination, periodontal retreatment needs and progression of periodontitis, as well as tooth loss, were significantly higher among IC when compared to RC (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that: 1) age and > 30% of sites with CAL ≥ 4 mm were associated with the progression of periodontitis; 2) smoking, co-habitation status, family income, and > 30% of sites with BOP were associated with periodontal retreatment needs; 3) age, family income, low frequency of tooth brushing, and diabetes were associated with tooth loss. Conclusion: RC individuals in public/academic PMT programs presented with lower periodontal retreatment needs and progression of periodontitis, as well as tooth loss when compared to IC individuals.
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