Introduction: The gastrointestinal system is strongly associated with the oral mucosa including periodontal tissues. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has two common forms: Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Local inflammation in periodontal diseases (PD) has an impact on inflammatory diseases in various parts of the body. The existence of periodontitis in IBD patients suggests the possibility that the two inflammatory conditions may have common pathogenic pathways. Both diseases are multifactorial conditions in which genetic and environmental factors initiate and maintain the chronic inflammatory response. Aim: The aim of this review was to determine the current state of understanding of the characteristics and mechanisms underlying the association between IBD and periodontal diseases, with emphasis on the role of microorganisms. Methods: A computer-assisted MEDLINE search was performed to find the relevant articles concerning IBD and periodontal diseases published until September 2016. Results and conclusion: A number of studies have showed an association between PD and IBD. Both diseases share genetic and environmental etiological factors. The precise role of intestinal bacteria remains vague. The periodontal microbiota that might be involved in the association of these diseases are Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus and Campylobacter concisus. Fungal and viral microbiota dysbiosis should also be evaluated as common pathogenic pathways in IBD and periodontal disease.
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